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You searched for: creator:"Philip A. Harland"
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[audio]backup of 2.1 when other not working - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss some introductory issues regarding the gospels, including their status as ancient biographies or portraits of Jesus and the literary relationships among the synoptic gospels (approx. 45 minutes). This sets the stage for an historical and literary study of portraits of Jesus in Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John, as well as the book of Hebrews. This episode is part of series two ("Early Christian Portraits of Jesus") of the podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; gospels; jesus
Downloads: 1,967
[audio]Podcast 6.8: Phoenician Immigrant Associations, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
This episode continues the discussion of Syrian, Phoenician and Israelite (Samaritan) ethnic groups or immigrant associations, moving into the Roman imperial period. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: associations; roman empire; greco-roman religion; judeans; israelites
Downloads: 8,665
[audio]Podcast 7.4: Origins part 3a - Israelite Prophets 1 - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss the importance of the prophets in the Hebrew Bible for the subsequent development of apocalypticism, beginning with a survey of important events in the history of Israel and discussion of a passage in Ezekiel (chs. 37-39).
Keywords: apocalyptic; apocalypticism; prophets; Hebrew bible; israelite; ezekiel; exile; restoration
Downloads: 8,329
[audio]Podcast 3.12: Secret Book of John, part 2 - Salvation from the Material Realm - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to explain the worldview of the Apocryphon of John, particularly its notions regarding the material realm, the inferior creator god (demiurge), and salvation from this realm. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; gnosticism; nag hammadi
Downloads: 13,936
[audio]Podcast 1.5: Paul and the followers of Jesus at Corinth, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
This fifth episode continues discussion of the situation at Corinth as reflected in chapters 6-15 of 1 Corinthians, dealing with problems that arose due to the socially superior position of some Corinthian Christians and the spiritually superior claims of others. This episode is part of series one ("Paul and his Communities") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; new testament; bible; 1 corinthians; christian origins; greco-roman religion; judaism
Downloads: 17,640
[audio]Podcast 4.4: Messages from the Gods - Apollo at Claros and Didyma - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss messages from the gods, or divination. One way in which the gods were thought to communicate with individuals, groups, and communities was through oracles such as those of Apollo at Claros and Didyma. This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: apollo; oracles; greco-roman religion; roman empire; divination
Downloads: 12,829
[audio]Podcast 4.1: Introduction to Honouring the Gods - Philip A. Harland
This is the introductory episode for a series that explores the various ways in which people in the Roman empire, especially in Asia Minor, honoured and communicated with their gods. This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: greco-roman world; roman empire; religion; asia minor; greek religion; roman religion
Downloads: 13,356
[audio]Podcast 2.8: John's Portrait of Jesus - Son and Word (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss how the gospel of John portrays Jesus as both the Word of God and the Son sent by the Father. I also deal with this gospel's stress on the importance of "signs" pointing to Jesus' identity and the way in which Jesus ("Lamb of God") is viewed as a fulfillment of Jewish festivals, especially Passover (part 1 of 2).
Keywords: new testament; bible; gospels; gospel of John; early Christianity; Christian origins; ancient history; Jesus
Downloads: 14,778
[audio]Podcast 5.13: Jesus as Healer and Exorcist - Philip A. Harland
Here I investigate the historical Jesus within the context of contemporaries who were viewed as healers and exorcists in first century Galilee and Judea. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: historical jesus; healing; miracles; early christianity; exorcism; exorcist
Downloads: 12,032
[audio]Podcast 7.3: Origins part 2 - Zoroastrian apocalypticism - Philip A. Harland
Here I turn to Persia (Iran) in order to examine Zoroastrian apocalypticism and its relation to Judean apocalypticism. This is part of series 7 (Visions of the End: Apocalypticism) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: Zoroaster; zoroastrianism; apocalypticism; end of the world; persia; iranian
Downloads: 8,734
[audio]Podcast 3.6: Sources for the Study of Diversity - Gnostic, Apocryphal, Patristic - Philip A. Harland
Here I sketch out our main sources for the study of diverse Christian groups or "heresies" in the second and third centuries, including discussion of the early Christian Apocrypha, the Nag Hammadi writings, and the Church Fathers, or patristic writings. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; apocrypha; nag hammadi; gnosticism; gnostic; church fathers; patristic; new testament; christian origins; bible; ancient history
Downloads: 13,575
[audio]Podcast 5.14: Jesus as Prophet - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss first-century Judean concepts of the prophet and place Jesus within the context of other figures who were viewed as prophets. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: historical jesus; early christianity; judaism
Downloads: 12,050
[audio]Podcast 8.3 Predecessors From Persia - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss the battle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu in Persian Zoroastrianism in relation to the role of Satan within Judean apocalypticism.
Keywords: satan; devil; zoroaster; zoroastrianism; apocalypticism; ahura mazda; angra mainyu; ancient judaism; early christianity; history
Downloads: 6,711
[audio]Podcast 1.10: Paul's response to the Romans - Philip A. Harland
This episode considers Paul's response to the ethnic divisions that existed among groups of Jesus-followers at Rome. Here I discuss Paul's main arguments regarding the equally condemnable and equally save-able status of both Judeans and Greeks (or Gentiles), as well as Paul's view that "all Israel will be saved". This series is part of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast, connected with the blog of the same name at
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; bible; new testament; apostle paul; romans; greco-roman religion; ancient history; history
Downloads: 16,472
[audio]Podcast 1.11: Legacies of Paul - Women's leadership, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This and the following episode look at legacies and interpretations of Paul after his death. In particular, I use several letters written in the name of Paul (the Pastoral epistles) and a novelistic story about Paul and a woman named Thecla (Acts of Paul and Thecla) as a window into debates about leadership of women in groups of Jesus-followers in the second century. These diverging portraits of Paul can be better understood against the background of Greek and Roman criticisms of certain early C...
Keywords: early christianity; bible; christian origins; new testament; thecla; acts of paul and thecla; pastoral epistles; 1 timothy; titus; apostle paul; greco-roman religions; ancient history; history
Downloads: 16,319
[audio]Pocast 7.5: Origins part 3b - Israelite Prophets 2 - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to discuss the importance of the prophets in the Hebrew Bible for the subsequent development of apocalypticism, dealing with Zechariah and Isaiah 24-27 (sometimes known as the "Apocalypse of Isaiah)
Keywords: prophets; apocalyptic; apocalypticism; apocalypse; zechariah; isaiah
Downloads: 7,779
[audio]Podcast 2.2: Mark's portrait of Jesus - Suffering Son (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I consider how Jesus is portrayed in the narrative of the gospel of Mark, namely as the secretive and suffering Son of God (part 1 of 2). I discuss Mark's use of literary irony in connection with the secrecy issue and cover critical points at which Jesus' identity comes to the fore in this ancient biography written for a Gentile (non-Judean) audience. This episode is part of series two ("Early Christian Portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast, which is con...
Keywords: Jesus; Gospels; early christianity; christian origins; bible; new testament; ancient history; gospel of mark
Downloads: 16,095
[audio]Podcast 6.1: Introduction to Associations in the Greco-Roman World - Philip A. Harland
In this first episode of the series, I discuss our evidence for associations and guilds in the Greco-Roman world and outline the various types of these groups, including family-based, occupation-based, neighbourhood-based, and ethnic-based groups. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: associations; guilds; social history; roman empire; greco-roman world; hellenistic; religion; early christianity; ancient judaism
Downloads: 10,481
[audio]Podcast 2.6: Luke's Portrait of Jesus - Prophet Elijah (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss how the gospel of Luke portrays Jesus as a prophet like Elijah, which also entails presenting Jesus as a saviour to the poor and marginalized of society (part 1 of 2). In this first part, I provide some important background for understanding this two volume work, Luke-Acts, both as ancient biography and as ancient history-writing.
Keywords: early Christianity; new testament; bible; gospel of luke; gospels; jesus; ancient history; christian origins; early christianity
Downloads: 15,336
[audio]Podcast 5.3: Studying the Historical Jesus - Sources and Problems, part 3 - Philip A. Harland
This episode is the third of three that introduce key historical sources and problems in reconstructing the life of a peasant from Galilee, the historical Jesus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early christianity; jesus; historical jesus; judaism; new testament
Downloads: 11,695
[audio]Podcast 6.11 Jesus Groups as Associations and Cultural Minorities, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This episode introduces groups of early Jesus-followers within the context of associations, Judeans, and cultural minority groups, setting the stage for case studies of Jesus groups in Asia Minor (parts 2-3).
Keywords: early christianity; associations; jesus; christianity
Downloads: 7,551
[audio]Podcast 3.8: Jewish Followers of Jesus, part 2 - Pseudo-Clement - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to explore Jewish followers of Jesus by examining key passages in an apocryphal novel attributed to Clement of Rome, also known as the Pseudo-Clementine writings. In particular, an opening letter claiming to be written by Peter to James and the story of Peter's debates with Simon Magus (a cipher for Paul) provide glimpses into struggles between Jewish followers of Jesus and others, including Pauline forms of Christianity...
Keywords: early Christianity; pseudo-clementine; apocrypha; paul; peter; bible; new testament; early christianity; christian origins; judaism
Downloads: 13,372
[audio]Podcast 8.12 Satan's Demons And The Greco Roman Gods In Justin Martyr And Origen ( 2nd 3rd Centuries) - Philip A. Harland
In the first of two episodes dealing with the Church Fathers, here I look at how Justin Martyr and Origen contribute to the story of Satan and his demons in countering external opponents.
Keywords: Satan; Devil; Church Fathers; Celsus; Origen; Justin Martyr; ancient history; early Christianity
Downloads: 4,392
[audio]Podcast 5.2: Studying the Historical Jesus - Sources and Problems, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
This episode is the second of three that introduce key historical sources and problems in reconstructing the life of a peasant from Galilee, the historical Jesus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: jesus; historical jesus; early Christianity; judaism
Downloads: 12,556
[audio]Podcast 8.2 Predecessors of Satan from Canaan And Israel - Philip A. Harland
This episode continues to consider the centrality of the "combat myth" for the subsequent origins of Satan, considering Ugaritic (Canaanite) and Israelite examples of a god slaying a chaos monster, such as Leviathan.
Keywords: Satan; personified evil; cultural history; religion; canaanite religion; israelite religion; leviathan; rahab; combat myth; satan; devil; ancient judaism; early christianity
Downloads: 6,746
[audio]Podcast 1.7: Paul and the situation in Galatia - Philip A. Harland
This episode looks at the situation in Galatia that led Paul to write his letter in the mid-first century (part 1 of 2). After Paul left this region of Asia Minor, certain leaders of the Jesus movement had passed through and discovered Gentiles (non-Judeans) who were not circumcized, despite the fact they thought they belonged to this Judean (Jewish) movement. Here I explore the rationale of these opponents of Paul who advocated circumcision as an entrance requirement into the movement and as a ...
Keywords: new testament; apostle paul; galatia; galatians; bible; early christianity; christian origins; ancient judaism; greco-roman world; ancient mediterranean; jesus movement
Downloads: 16,026
[audio]Podcast 6.13: Cultural Minority Associations and Ethnic Stereotypes, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This and the following episode explore ethnic stereotypes as they impacted associations of Judeans and Jesus-followers, placing these groups within the context of ethnic rivalries. In this episode, I discuss common negative stereotypes about Judeans found within writings of the elites, particularly the Roman Tacitus and the Greek Egyptian Apion.
Keywords: Jews; Judeans; ethnic rivalry; Judaism; identity; stereotypes; sociology
Downloads: 7,138
[audio]Podcast 6.14: Cultural Minority Associations and Ethnic Stereotypes, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
This final episode in the series continues the discussion of how negative ethnic stereotypes (including accusations of human sacrifice, cannibalism, and incest) impacted immigrant associations and cultural minorities, including groups of Jesus followers.
Keywords: Christians; stereotypes; cannibalism; human sacrifice; early Christianity; immigrants
Downloads: 6,061
[audio]Podcast 8.6 Mastema In Jubilees And Beliar In The Dead Sea Scrolls - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to trace the development of evil personified figures in Judean literature around the turn of the first century BCE, focussing on Mastema (Enmity personified) and Beliar or Belial (Worthless One).  I also discuss the Princes of Darkness and of Light in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Keywords: Satan; Judaism; devil; beliar; belial; mastema; jubilees; dead sea scrolls; early christianity; ancient history
Downloads: 5,954
[audio]Podcast 7.1: Visions of the End - What is Apocalypticism? - Philip A. Harland
In this first episode I begin to define apocalypticism with reference to (1) a worldview or ideology focused on an imminent end of the world, (2) social groupings that live out that worldview, and (3) a type writing or genre of literature (e.g. the book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible and John's Revelation.in the New Testament). This is part of series 7 (Visions of the End: Apocalypticism) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: apocalypticism; apocalyptic; armageddon; ancient judaism; early christianity; end of the world; millenialism; millenarian
Downloads: 8,483
[audio]Podcast 3.3: Docetic and Judaizing Opponents of Ignatius - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss two main groups of opponents combated by Ignatius of Antioch in his letters to followers of Jesus in Asia Minor (Turkey): Docetic and Judaizing opponents (part 1 of 2). This episode introduces Ignatius (who wrote in the early second century) and explains the position of his docetic opponents, who thought that Jesus only appeared to be human when in fact he was a divine being. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of...
Keywords: early Christianity; heresies; new testament; bible; apostolic fathers; ignatius of antioch; christian origins; docetism; gnosticism
Downloads: 14,147
[audio]Podcast 3.2: A Schism in John's Community, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to delve into the opponents in John's epistles (part 2 of 2). These epistles provide evidence of an early Christian schism over how to view Jesus' humanity. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; bible; new testament; heresies; christian origins
Downloads: 13,554
[audio]Podcast 7.8: Introduction to Daniel's Historical Apocalypse - Philip A. Harland
Here I introduce the "historical apocalypse" of Daniel, including a discussion of the kingdoms in king Nebuchadnezzar's dream (ch. 2) and the historical context of chapters 7-12 (the apocalypse proper) during the time of the Hellenistic king Antiochus IV Epiphanes (in the 160s BCE).
Keywords: apocalypse; apocalypticism; end of the world; judaism; christianity; daniel; antiochus epiphanes
Downloads: 7,404
[audio]Podcast 4.2: A City and Its Patron Deity - Artemis of Ephesus - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss civic cults in Asia Minor and Ephesus with a focus on the relationship between a city and its patron deity (in this case Artemis Ephesia). This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: greco-roman religions; asia minor; ephesus; Artemis; civic cults; roman empire
Downloads: 13,336
[audio]Podcast 5.1: Studying the Historical Jesus - Sources and Problems, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This episode is the first of three that introduce key historical sources and problems in reconstructing the life of a peasant from Galilee, the historical Jesus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; jesus; historical jesus; judaism; christian origins
Downloads: 13,225
[audio]Podcast 5.7: Jesus, Galilee, and Israelite History, part 2 - To the Time of Jesus - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to place Jesus and Galilee within the broader context of Israelite history. This episode works through the Hellenistic and Roman periods, including the time of Jesus, and finishes with a discussion of social and economic life in first century Galilee and Judea. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: historical jesus; early christianity; new testament; judaism; christian origins
Downloads: 13,669
[audio]Podcast 3.11: Secret Book of John, part 1 - The Spiritual Realm - Philip A. Harland
Here I begin to explain the worldview of the Apocryphon of John, one of the Nag Hammadi writings (part 1 of 2). Like other writings in that collection, this author makes a clear distinction between the perfect spiritual realm, also known as the "fullness", and an inferior material realm created by a jealous god or "ruler" (archon). In this episode I describe the perfect spiritual realm and the process of emanations from the perfect "Invisible Spirit" or "Father".
Keywords: early Christianity; ancient history; nag hammadi; apocryphon of john; gnosticism; platonism
Downloads: 15,068
[audio]Podcast 3.10: Introducing Gnostic Worldviews - Philip A. Harland
Here I set the stage for the study of specific Nag Hammadi and related writings by outlining in broad terms some common denominators or assumptions in the range of worldviews traditionally labeled "gnostic". This includes discussion of the Middle Platonic assumptions of many authors. I also deal with the importance of knowledge (gnosis) in the understanding of how salvation from the material realm, which was created by an inferior god, takes place...
Keywords: early christianity; ancient history; gnosticism; gnostic; christian origins; plato; platonic philosophy; nag hammadi
Downloads: 15,621
[audio]Podcast 6.12: Jesus Groups as Associations and Cultural Minorities, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to discuss groups of Jesus followers in Asia Minor with case studies of 1 Peter and Revelation (John's Apocalypse), focussing on both indications of identity construction or maintenance and signs of assimilation or acculturation.
Keywords: 1 Peter; new testament; early christianity; acculturation; assimilation; identity
Downloads: 8,219
[audio]Podcast 5.5: Scholarly Portraits of the Historical Jesus, part 2 (Sanders) - Philip A. Harland
This is the second of two episodes that explore two contrasting scholarly portraits of the historical Jesus, those of John Dominic Crossan (Jesus as egalitarian peasant) and E.P. Sanders (Jesus as apocalyptic prophet). This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; historical jesus; judaism; new testament; bible
Downloads: 13,005
[audio]Podcast 8.7 The Devil And Beelzebub In The Synoptic Gospels - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss how the authors of the synoptic gospels portray Jesus in conflict with demons and with the Devil.
Keywords: satan; devil; beelzebub; early christianity; ancient history; ancient judaism; gospel of mark; gospel of Luke
Downloads: 5,732
[audio]Podcast 1.4: Paul and the followers of Jesus at Corinth, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This fourth episode is part one of three that look at the followers of Jesus at Corinth through Paul's letter known as 1 Corinthians in the New Testament. After discussing the city of Corinth, I go on to consider the history of Paul's interactions with these Christians, which was characterized by rocky relations. Then we delve into the situation among the Corinthians that led Paul to write his letter, primarily the issue of social and religious divisions within the Jesus groups at Corinth (in 1 ...
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; apostle paul; 1 corinthians; corinth; greco-roman world; judaism; ancient history
Downloads: 19,203
[audio]Podcast 8.9 A Satanic Empire In John's Apocalypse - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss Satan in John's Apocalypse (Revelation), pointing out how this author pulls together many strands of the story of Satan and does so to demonize an external power: the Roman empire.
Keywords: Satan; the Devil; John's Apocalypse; Revelation; early Christianity; ancient Judaism; ancient history; Roman empire; apocalypticism
Downloads: 5,767
[audio]Podcast 2.4: Matthew's portrait of Jesus - New Moses (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss the very Judean portrait of Jesus as the new David and new Moses in the Gospel of Matthew (part 1 of 2). This illustrates well the ways in which ancient biographical writers, including the gospel authors, shaped portraits of the main character using specific types of the past or stereotypes. This is part of series 2 ("Early Christian portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; church history; gospels; matthew; judaism; ancient history
Downloads: 15,810
[audio]Podcast 3.13: The Wisdom of Jesus Christ and Middle Platonism - Philip A. Harland
Here I use two related Nag Hammadi writings -- Eugnostos the Blessed and The Sophia of Jesus Christ -- as a window into forms of Christianity that were heavily influenced by Middle Platonic philosophy, particularly in regard to cosmology and the divine Triad. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; plato; philosophy; gnosticism; gnostic; sophia
Downloads: 13,872
[audio]Podcast 1.8: Paul's response to the Galatians - Philip A. Harland
This second episode on Paul's letter to the Galatians looks at Paul's response to the situation involving opponents that were advocating circumcision. I discuss the apocalyptic rationale behind Paul's notion that circumcision was not an entrance requirement for Gentiles to belong to the Jesus groups. In the process, I also begin to deal with Paul's complicated positions regarding the Torah (the law) and its relation to non-Judeans...
Keywords: early Christianity; new testament; bible; christian origins; ancient judaism; greco-roman religions; apostle paul; galatia; judaism
Downloads: 15,972
[audio]Podcast 6.3: Judean and Christian Groups as Associations - Philip A. Harland
Using Josephus and Philo as a starting point, here I discuss how people in the ancient world, including Judeans (Jews), Christians, and others, sometimes expressed the identities of Judean synagogues and Christian congregations in terms of association-life. Although peculiar in some respects, Judean and Christian groups can be studied alongside other associations in the Greco-Roman world. This is part of series 7 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterrane...
Keywords: associations; guilds; social history; roman empire; greco-roman world; hellenistic; religion; early christianity; ancient judaism
Downloads: 10,383
[audio]Podcast 5.8: Jesus, the Galilean and Judean - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss Jesus as a Galilean and a Judean. I do so by looking at cultural life associated with the temple in the first century and the relations between cultures in Judea and Galilee. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: Judaism; historical jesus; galilee; early christianity
Downloads: 13,353
[audio]Podcast 1.1: Paul in his own words - Philip A. Harland
In this first episode on Paul and his communities, we look at autobiographical statements by Paul as a way of introducing Paul and his letters from an historical perspective. This is part of series one (Paul and his Communities) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast. (Episode re-edited and improved January 29, 2009.)
Keywords: history, early christianity, new testament, apostle paul; religion; ancient history; early christianity; ancient religions
Downloads: 25,393
[audio]Podcast 7.6: 1 Enoch - An Introduction to the Earliest Apocalypse - Philip A. Harland
Here I begin to introduce our earliest example of the Judean apocalyptic worldview and our first example of an otherworldly journey apocalypse as a type of literature, 1 Enoch (which most likely dates to about 225-200 BCE). The next episode examines the so called "Book of Watchers" in 1 Enoch chapters 1-36 in more detail.
Keywords: apocalypticism; apocalypse; 1 enoch; judgement; end of the world; fallen angels; satan
Downloads: 8,339
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